The following is abstracted from a lecture entitled From Ptolemy to Pilgrimage: Images of Late Antiquity in Geography, Travel and Cartography by Scott Johnson presented at the Library of Congress, on June 9, 2011 as published on the History of the Ancient World website. The full video can be seen at the link to the article above.
In his presentation, the author argues that the map known as Tabula Peutingeriana, or Peutinger Table named after its early modern owner Konrad Peutinger, which is the only world map to survive from the Greco-Roman world offers a unique opportunity to explore in detail the cultural history of the period in which it was originally made. The period of the original map document, roughly 300 to 600 AD, is referred to in literature as “late antiquity”, basically from the time of Constantine to Mohammed. This period that has come to be viewed as a crucial transitional period in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern history over the past 50 years.